The Effect of Stem Diameter on the Brassica napus   (Type: Canola) (Cultivar: HYHEAR 3) Fiber Quality

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The Effect of Stem Diameter on the Brassica napus   (Type: Canola) (Cultivar: HYHEAR 3) Fiber Quality

Afroza Parvin Department of Biosystems Engineering University of Manitoba

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Home - CIGR 2020

Home - CIGR 2020

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Table 1: Chemical composition of the canola, jute, and cotton fibres (% on OD basis)

Brassica napus (canola) is a lignocellulosic bast fiber. Canola fibers are less flexible and has less twisting capacity than jute and cotton.

Component Canola fiber Jute fiber Cotton fiber Cellulose 44% 61-75.5% 88-96% Lignin 19.21% 12-13% 0.4-1%

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A matured canola plant has different types of stems, such as, narrow (less mature), medium (mature), and wide (most mature). It is assumable that the narrower (less mature) stem fiber might have lower lignin content than the wider one and hence relatively less stiff.

Cycle of growth of a plant of a canola isolated on a white background.

Narrow stem (immature) Medium stem (mature) Wide stem (most mature)

Figure 1: A mature canola plant

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Hypothesis

The hypothesis of our study was “Lesser diameter canola stem has less stiff fibers”.

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Table 2: Three different types of stems based on different diameters

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Extractions Stems Diameter ranges Groups     mm   E1 Narrow 2.8-4.5 1   Medium 4.8-7.8     Wide 8.0-10.0   E2 Narrow 2.5-6.0 2   Medium 7.0-9.0     Wide 9.5-12.5   E3 Narrow 2.8-4.5 1   Medium 4.8-7.8     Wide 8.0-10.0   E4 Narrow 2.8-4.5 1   Medium 4.8-7.8     Wide 8.0-10.0   E5 Narrow 2.5-6.0 2   Medium 7.0-9.0     Wide 9.5-12.5   E6 Narrow 2.8-4.5 1   Medium 4.8-7.8     Wide 8.0-10.0

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Table 4: Testing hypothesis using group-1 fibers ( p -values)

N.B: p -value significance: 0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1 E1 = Extraction-1, E3 = Extraction-3, E4=Extraction-4, E6 = Extraction-6

Properties   E1+E3+E4+E6 p -values Fiber diameter (µm) 7.06e -07 *** Average length (cm) 0.0992 Elongation at break (%) 0.259 Load at break (N) 2.08e -05 *** Tenacity (gf/denier) 3.66e -05 *** Tensile stress (MPa) 0.000278*** Young’s modulus (GPa) 0.00549** Aspect ratio (l/d) 0.000242*** Contact angle (˚) 0.000633***

Here, the fixed effect was stem diameter and random effect was fiber diameter

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Table 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, & 15: Observation of the effects of stem diameter on the properties of the group-1 and group-2 fibers (mean-values)

N.B: E1, 3, 4, 6 = Extraction-1, 3, 4, 6 E2 = Extraction-2

Narrow = (2-5) mm, Medium = (5-8) mm, Wide = (8-10) mm

Narrow = (2-6) mm, Medium = (7-9) mm , Wide = (10-13) mm

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Stems   Fiber diameter (µm) (used for tensile strength measurement) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 44.19±0.66 49.28±1.46 Medium 45.84±1.15 59.91±1.54 Wide 53.15±1.15 53.58±1.61

Stems Average length (cm) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 5.85±1.54 5.08±0.96 Medium 5.77±1.58 5.02±1.17 Wide 5.46±1.72 4.78±1.12

Stems Elongation at break (%) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 1.67±0.09 1.56±0.12 Medium 1.71±0.09 1.80±0.11 Wide 1.83±0.07 1.64±0.10

Stems Load at break (N) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 0.45±0.05 0.38±0.02 Medium 0.55±0.06 0.49±0.05 Wide 0.76±0.27 0.40±0.04

Stems Tenacity (gf/tex) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 0.46±0.05 0.40±0.02 Medium 0.56±0.08 0.50±0.06 Wide 0.77±0.08 0.44±0.04

Stems Tensile stress (MPa) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 313.92±49.9 228.31±28.41 Medium 358.74±48.96 192.38±22.28 Wide 238.35±40.11 196±30.47

Stems Young’s modulus (GPa) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 33.47±4.15 26.73±2.40 Medium 37.51±4.55 20.25±3.13 Wide 30.17±3.15 22.56±2.76

Stems Aspect ratio (l/d) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 13413.33±454.56 10840.97±412.09 Medium 12821.44±450.13 8606.27±256.32 Wide 10462.2±482.65 9289.10±382.59

Stems Contact angle (˚) Group-1 Group-2 E1+E3+E4+E6 E2 Narrow 112.16±10.80 113.28±7.91 Medium 117.8±16.03 127.78±14.33 Wide 126.11±20.8 118.35±12.85

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Effect of stem diameter on fiber moisture regain (%)

Figure 2: Effect of fiber moisture regain (%) on stem diameter

Wide 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 4.3583535108958875 6.7469879518072347 13.768115942028986 19.66 21.739130434782616 30.637254901960798 27.427184466019426 Medium 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 4.0609137055837454 7.5949367088607511 14.467005076142131 20.792000000000002 22.531645569620242 34.518000000000001 25.313283208020042 Narrow 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 5.3708439897698117 8.4615384615384546 13.554987212276211 18.877551020408166 20.253164556962012 26.342710997442449 23.544303797468345

Wide 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 4.5851528384279394 6.304347826086949 10.752688172043008 16.05995717344754 17.344753747323345 25.541 19.957537154989399 Medium 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 5.6140350877193042 8.1560283687943347 14.134275618374573 20.557491289198605 21.554770318021202 38.372093023255808 25.088339222614849 Narrow 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 3.7288135593220377 6.7340067340067407 13.043478260869575 19.063545150501671 20.80536912751678 28.472222222222232 24.579124579124585

Wide 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 4.6065259117082569 5.4820415879017057 10.815939278937369 16.920152091254746 19.385999999999999 29.489603024574674 26.42585551330799 26.42585551330799 Medium 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 2.1164021164021185 6.7204301075268882 12.806539509536782 18.181999999999999 19.890999999999998 33.606557377049178 30.081300813008127 30.081300813008127 Narrow 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 4.0880503144654119 5.9375000000000053 11.111111111111104 18.769230769230798 24.178999999999998 33.534999999999997 31.825545171339598 31.825545171339598

Wide 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 3.4734917733089405 6.8645640074211354 11.48148148148147 15.229357798165131 17.005545286506461 22.935779816513762 20.295202952029516 20.295202952029516 Medium 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 4.414003044140034 7.1104387291981732 12.217194570135741 18.373493975903614 20.543806646525681 32.213740458015259 26.395173453996971 26.395173453996971 Narrow 11.3 23.5 55 75.5 84.3 93.6 100 100 4.787961696306434 6.9577080491132399 11.85286103542234 18.164999999999999 21.902999999999999 33.604999999999997 27.496580027359791 27.496580027359791

Group-1 fibers

Group-2 fibers

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Conclusion

In summary, fibers of 7-10 mm stem diameter (mature) was found to be less stiff. Therefore, this study provided an insightful understanding of the quality of the canola fibers of different stem diameters which will ultimately help to choose the best stem to extract different qualities of canola fibers for commercial uses.

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