SAGNIK DUTTA MAZUMDER,VII,24

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SAGNIK DUTTA MAZUMDER,VII,24

THE BLUE EARTH

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ORIGIN OF EARTH

By referring to the origin of the earth, we don’t mean the creation of matt which the planet is composed of. By origin of the earth, we actually mean the very appearance of this cosmic matter as a single whole body of conceivable state and form having individual existence. The birth of our planet must have been due to some unique phenomenon which occurred in the universe in the remote past in which the earth saw the first glimpse of its existence. Because of their similarities in motions and composition, the earth, along with its co-planets and satellites, forms a part and parcel of the solar system, and as such all of them including the Sun must have been formed simultaneously. Thus, the origin of the earth is intimately related to that of the solar system and the birth of the sun and its member planets, satellites etc. The Earth in particular must have been born due to some unique celestial phenomenon that occurred in very remote past, about 4,500 million years ago. Many hypotheses have been put forth relating to the origin of the earth. There seems to be two basic premises on which the hypotheses are based. In another way, the hypotheses advanced so far, may be put into two major groups such as condensation hypotheses and fragmentation hypotheses. The two groups postulate diametrically opposite mode of origin of our planet and hence of the solar system. Both the groups of hypotheses have merits and demerits. It is beyond the scope to present here an account of all the hypotheses. Only some important hypotheses which enjoy scientific acceptance and popularity during some period or the other are discussed below. It may be mentioned here that more than one hypothesis put forth by individual scientists carry the same or nearly same idea in some modified ways and as such the related hypotheses are treated in a combined form in the following description. Some of them belong to “Condensation” school and the others to “Fragmentation” school.

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Earth, along with the other planets, is believed to have been born 4.5 billion years ago as a solidified cloud of dust and gases left over from the creation of the Sun. For perhaps 500 million years, the interior of Earth stayed solid and relatively cool, perhaps 2,000°F. The main ingredients, according to the best available evidence, were iron and silicates, with small amounts of other elements, some of them radioactive. As millions of years passed, energy released by radioactive decay—mostly of uranium, thorium, and potassium—gradually heated Earth, melting some of its constituents. The iron melted before the silicates, and, being heavier, sank toward the center. This forced up the silicates that it found there. After many

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years, the iron reached the center , almost 4,000 mi deep, and began to accumulate. No eyes were around at that time to view the turmoil that must have taken place on the face of Earth—gigantic heaves and bubblings on the surface, exploding volcanoes, and flowing lava covering everything in sight. Finally, the iron in the center accumulated as the core. Around it, a thin but fairly stable crust of solid rock formed as Earth cooled. Depressions in the crust were natural basins in which water, rising from the interior of the planet through volcanoes and fissures, collected to form the oceans. Slowly, Earth acquired its present appearance.

Image result for picture of origin of Earth

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SOCIAL STUDIES

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MARIANA TRENCH

This article is about the deep sea trench. For the Canadian band named after the geological formation, see Marianas Trench (band) . Coordinates : 11°21′N 142°12′E   Location of the Mariana Trench The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench [1] is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands , and has the deepest natural trench in the world. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth's crust averaging about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide. The maximum known depth is 10,994 metres (36,070  ft ) (± 40 metres [130  ft ]) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep . [2] However, some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201  ft ). [3] By comparison: if Mount Everest was placed into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water. [a] At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95.27 of any unit of volume of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 of those units at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F). [5] The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is an oblate spheroid , not a perfect sphere ; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) smaller at the poles than at the equator. [6] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor. In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument . [7] Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface. [8] Data has also suggested that microbial life forms thrive within the trench. [9] [10]

This article is about the deep sea trench. For the Canadian band named after the geological formation, see Marianas Trench (band) . Coordinates : 11°21′N 142°12′E   Location of the Mariana Trench The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench [1] is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands , and has the deepest natural trench in the world. It is a crescent-shaped trough in the Earth's crust averaging about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide. The maximum known depth is 10,994 metres (36,070  ft ) (± 40 metres [130  ft ]) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep . [2] However, some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201  ft ). [3] By comparison: if Mount Everest was placed into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over two kilometres (1.2 mi) under water. [a] At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95.27 of any unit of volume of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 of those units at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F). [5] The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is an oblate spheroid , not a perfect sphere ; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) smaller at the poles than at the equator. [6] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor. In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument . [7] Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface. [8] Data has also suggested that microbial life forms thrive within the trench. [9] [10]

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In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument . [7] Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface. [8] Data has also suggested that microbial life forms thrive within the trench. [9] [10]

In 2009, the Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument . [7] Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface. [8] Data has also suggested that microbial life forms thrive within the trench. [9] [10]

Cross- Of Mariana Arc

THE MARIANA TRENCH Depth: 6033.5 Fathorns Length: 1580 Miles Width: 43 Miles M!qgw: nuoe r-OUOgp: 1290 DObtw: eoaa•e Egtpou.Je

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MOUNT EVEREST

Mount Everest , known in Nepali as Sagarmatha ( सगरमाथा ) and in T [9] ibetan as Chomolungma ( ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ ), is Earth 's highest mountain above sea level , located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas . The international border between Nepal ( Province No. 1 ) and China ( Tibet Autonomous Region ) runs across its summit point . The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029  ft ), recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. [1] In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m (29,017 ft ). There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m, China) or the snow height (8,848 m, Nepal). In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, and Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m. [5] In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society , upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh , the British Surveyor General of India . As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest , despite Everest's objections. [6]

Mount Everest , known in Nepali as Sagarmatha ( सगरमाथा ) and in T [9] ibetan as Chomolungma ( ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ ), is Earth 's highest mountain above sea level , located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas . The international border between Nepal ( Province No. 1 ) and China ( Tibet Autonomous Region ) runs across its summit point . The current official elevation of 8,848 m (29,029  ft ), recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. [1] In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m (29,017 ft ). There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m, China) or the snow height (8,848 m, Nepal). In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, and Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m. [5] In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society , upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh , the British Surveyor General of India . As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest , despite Everest's objections. [6]

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anga Sea Bana i me nts North ation

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PHYSICS ROTATION AND REVOLUTION OF EARTH

Basis for Comparison Rotation Revolution Meaning Rotation refers to a circular motion around an axis, located within the body of the object. Revolution means a circular motion around an axis, located outside the object. What is it? Movement of an object on its axis. A complete round trip around something. Axis Internal External Change in position No Yes Earth Rotation of earth, is from west to east, which causes day and night. Revolution of earth is in counterclockwise manner, which causes seasons. Example Hand of clocks, Spinning top , rotation of earth ,etc. Rounding a curve in a car, merry go round revolution of earth, etc.

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Rotation and Revolution

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CHEMISTRY

Crust The solid crust is the outermost and thinnest layer of our planet. The crust averages 25 miles (40 kilometers) in thickness and is divided in to fifteen major tectonic plates that are rigid in the center and have geologic activity at the boundaries, such as earthquakes and volcanism. Mantle Mantle material is hot (932 to 1,652 degrees Fahrenheit, 500 to 900 degrees Celsius) and dense and moves as semi-solid rock. The mantle is 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick and is composed of silicate minerals that are similar to ones found in the crust, except with more magnesium and iron and less silicon and aluminum. Outer Core The outer core is composed mostly of iron and nickel, with these metals found in liquid form. The outer core reaches between 7,200 and 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit (4,000 and 5,000 degrees Celsius) and is estimated to be 1,430 miles (2,300 km) thick. It is the movement of the liquid within the outer core that generates Earth’s magnetic field. Inner Core The inner core is the hottest part of our planet, at temperatures between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,000 and 7,000 degrees Celsius). This solid layer is smaller than our Moon at 750 miles (1,200 km) thick and is composed mostly of iron. The iron is under so much pressure from the overlying planet that it cannot melt and stays in a solid state.

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LAYERS OF THE EARTH

Crust Moho Upper roantle roantle D' layer Outer core Liquid—solid boundary Inner core

Lit o s e uppe solid h p h ere Cru To scale to scale

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BIOLOGY

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Pollution not only hurts our planet, but it also has negative effects on humans. Air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels in factories, cars, airplanes, and for electricity can cause serious health problems. Even the use of aerosol products and pesticides can affect the air that we breathe. Humans may face health problems such as wheezing, breathing problems, worsening of asthma, or even birth defects from air pollution. Our land and water can also become polluted. This can be caused by littering or even the dumping of chemicals by industries. This pollution can affect our wildlife and our plants and trees, and it can even contaminate our drinking water. In other words, pollution is dangerous for us all. As we see the effects of pollution on our planet and ourselves, more countries are looking to green alternatives to prevent further damage to the earth. Solar and wind energy, eco-friendly building materials, and non-toxic products are being used to help preserve our planet. While some nations are becoming more “green” and eco-friendly, others still have a long way to go. In 2017, data from the World Health Organization was used to determine the most polluted nations on the planet. This data evaluated the concentration of PM 2.5 particles in the air. PM 2.5 are particles that are produced through combustion, such as driving a car or operating a power plant.

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A total of 92 nations were evaluated to determine which had the highest number of PM 2.5 – in other words, which nations were the most polluted. According to this data, Pakistan has the most polluted urban areas with an average PM 2.5 concentration of 115.7. Falling behind Pakistan was Qatar with a PM 2.5 average of 92.4. In third place was Afghanistan with a PM 2.5 average of 86. According to this study, other nations with high levels of pollution include:

A total of 92 nations were evaluated to determine which had the highest number of PM 2.5 – in other words, which nations were the most polluted. According to this data, Pakistan has the most polluted urban areas with an average PM 2.5 concentration of 115.7. Falling behind Pakistan was Qatar with a PM 2.5 average of 92.4. In third place was Afghanistan with a PM 2.5 average of 86. According to this study, other nations with high levels of pollution include:

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Pakistan - average PM 2.5 concentration: 115.7 Qatar - 92.4 Afghanistan - 86 Bangladesh - 83.3 Egypt - 73 UAE - 64 Mongolia - 61.8 India - 60.6 Bahrain - 56.1 Nepal - 50 Ghana - 49 Jordan - 48 China - 41.4 Senegal - 40 Turkey - 39.1 Bulgaria - 38.6 Mauritius - 38.1 Peru - 38 Serbia - 35.8 Iran - 34.2 Of the 92 countries to feature, Australia has the least polluted urban areas, followed by Brunei and New Zealand. Estonia is Europe's top performing nation, followed by Finland and Iceland. The UK just misses out on the top 20, coming 21st.

MtonC02 2015 100 - 500 500 - 700 700-1500 1500 - 5000 source: EC.JRC/PBL.EDGAR version 4.3.2.FT2015 http•]/edgar.jrc.eceuropa.eu/, 2016

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Area of the earth covered by different land forms

Sales PLAINS PLATEAU DESERT ISLAND 0.55000000000000004 0.18 0.2 7.0000000000000007E-2

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বিশ্ব উষ্ণায়ন অনুচ্ছেদ  পৃথিবীর বায়ুমন্ডলের তাপমাত্রার ক্রমশ বৃদ্ধি পাচ্ছে। বিজ্ঞানীদের গবেষণায় প্রণিত হয়েছে বিগত ১০০বছরে তাপমাত্রা ০.৫ ডিগ্রী সেন্টিগ্রেড বৃদ্ধি পেয়েছে, যেখানে পূর্বের প্রায় ৮০০০ বছর তাপমাত্রা স্থির ছিল। বিজ্ঞানীরা আরও দাবি করেছেন যে , মা এরকম চলতে থাকলে, ২০৫০ সালের মধ্যে পৃথিবীপৃষ্ঠের তাপমাত্রা ১.৫°-২.০° C পর্যন্ত এবং পরবর্তীতে আরও বৃদ্ধি পেতে পারে। ফলে পৃথিবীর ভারসাম্য নষ্ট হচ্ছে ধীরে ধীরে। পৃথিবীর এই ক্রমবর্ধমান তাপবৃদ্ধিই বিশ্ব উষ্ণায়ন নামে অভিহিত। বিশ্ব উষ্ণায়নের ফলে সভ্যতার প্রচুর ক্ষতি হচ্ছে। এই উষ্ণায়নের জন্য দায়ী গ্রিণ হাউস গ্যাসের প্রভাব, ওজোন স্তরের ক্ষয়। কিন্তু এইসবের পেছনে মূল কারণ হল মানবজাতি। সময় যত এগোচ্ছে লাগামছাড়া উন্নয়নের প্রচেষ্টায় নিজের ক্ষতি নিজেই ডেকে আনছে মানুষ। কলকারখানা, যানবাহন, বিদ্যুৎ উৎপাদন, শিল্পক্ষেত্র সবকিছুতে জীবাশ্ম জ্বালানীর ব্যবহার বাড়া, মিথেনের পরিমাণ বৃদ্ধি, নাইট্রোজেন অক্সাইড, সালফারের কণা, ক্লোরফ্লুরোকার্বন এইসবই ওজোন স্তরের ক্ষতি এবং গ্রিণ হাউজের প্রভাব বৃদ্ধির সহায়ক। গাছপালা কাটার ফলে বায়ুমন্ডলের কার্বন ডাই অক্সাইড শুষে নেওয়ার ক্ষমতা কমে যাচ্ছে। এরফলেই পৃথিবীর গড় তাপমাত্রা বৃদ্ধি পাচ্ছে, যা মেরু অঞ্চলের বরফ গলনের কারণ। বরফের গলনে জলস্তরের পরিমাণ বৃদ্ধি পাচ্ছে। এরকম চলতে থাকলে পৃথিবীর একটা বিরাট অংশ সমুদ্রে তলিয়ে যাবে। এছাড়াও এই বিশ্ব উষ্ণায়ন, আবহাওয়ার পরিবর্তনে জীববৈচিত্র্যের ক্ষতি হচ্ছে, রোগের প্রকোপ বৃদ্ধি পাচ্ছে। খাদ্যাভাব, বাসস্থানের সংকট, খরা-বন্যার প্রকোপ, দুর্ভিক্ষ, ডেকে আনছে উষ্ণায়ন। সর্বোপরি মানুষের অস্তিত্ব আজ সংকটের মুখে। পরিবেশবিদ্, আন্তর্জাতিক ক্ষেত্র সব জায়গা চাপ বাড়ছে এই সমস্যার মোকাবিলার জন্য। জীবাশ্ম জ্বালানীর, রাসায়নিক সার, মিথেনের ব্যবহার হ্রাস, ই-ওয়েস্ট বা ইলেক্ট্রনিক বর্জ্য আমদানী বন্ধ করে অচিরাচরিত শক্তির ব্যবহার বৃদ্ধি, পরিকল্পিত বনায়ন, শক্তিসাশ্রয়ী আবাসন নির্মাণ করতে হবে। সবথেকে বড় কথা মানুষকে তার নাগরিক দায়িত্ব পালন করতে হবে আসন্ন ক্ষতি থেকে বাঁচতে হলে, নয়তো মানুষ সহ পুরো সভ্যতাকে ধ্বংসের সম্মুখিন হতে হবে।

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Natural geographical features Ecosystems

There are two different terms to describe habitats: ecosystem and biome. An ecosystem is a community of organisms. [1] In contrast, biomes occupy large areas of the globe and often encompass many different kinds of geographical features, including mountain ranges . [2] Biotic diversity within an ecosystem is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including inter alia , terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems. [3] Living organisms are continually engaged in a set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist, and ecosystem describes any situation where there is relationship between organisms and their environment. Biomes represent large areas of ecologically similar communities of plants , animals , and soil organisms. [4] Biomes are defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf ), plant spacing (forest, woodland

There are two different terms to describe habitats: ecosystem and biome. An ecosystem is a community of organisms. [1] In contrast, biomes occupy large areas of the globe and often encompass many different kinds of geographical features, including mountain ranges . [2] Biotic diversity within an ecosystem is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including inter alia , terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems. [3] Living organisms are continually engaged in a set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist, and ecosystem describes any situation where there is relationship between organisms and their environment. Biomes represent large areas of ecologically similar communities of plants , animals , and soil organisms. [4] Biomes are defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf ), plant spacing (forest, woodland

savanna), and climate. Unlike ecozones , biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation

savanna), and climate. Unlike ecozones , biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation

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Landforms

A landform comprises a geomorphological unit and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain , and as such is typically an element of topography . Landforms are categorized by features such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification , rock exposure, and soil type. They include berms , mounds, hills, cliffs , valleys , rivers , and numerous other elements. Oceans and continents are the highest-order landforms.

A landform comprises a geomorphological unit and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain , and as such is typically an element of topography . Landforms are categorized by features such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification , rock exposure, and soil type. They include berms , mounds, hills, cliffs , valleys , rivers , and numerous other elements. Oceans and continents are the highest-order landforms.

A body of water is any significant accumulation of water, usually covering the Earth. The term " body of water" most often refers to oceans , seas , and lakes , but it may also include smaller pools of water such as ponds , creeks or wetlands . Rivers , streams , canals , and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are not always considered bodies of water, but they are included as geographical formations featuring water.

A body of water is any significant accumulation of water, usually covering the Earth. The term " body of water" most often refers to oceans , seas , and lakes , but it may also include smaller pools of water such as ponds , creeks or wetlands . Rivers , streams , canals , and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are not always considered bodies of water, but they are included as geographical formations featuring water.

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Artificial geographical features Settlement

A settlement is a permanent or temporary community in which people live. Settlements range in components from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Other landscape features such as roads, enclosures, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods, mills, manor houses, moats, and churches may be considered part of a settlement. [5]

A settlement is a permanent or temporary community in which people live. Settlements range in components from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Other landscape features such as roads, enclosures, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods, mills, manor houses, moats, and churches may be considered part of a settlement. [5]

Engineered geographic features include highways , bridges , airports , railroads , buildings , dams , and reservoirs , and are part of the anthroposphere because they are man-made geographic features.

Engineered geographic features include highways , bridges , airports , railroads , buildings , dams , and reservoirs , and are part of the anthroposphere because they are man-made geographic features.

Engineered constructs

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Cartographic features

Equator

Equator

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Earth is the planet we live on. It is the third planet from the Sun . It is the only planet known to have life on it. The Earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago . [28] [29] It is one of four rocky planets on the inside of the Solar System . The other three are Mercury , Venus and Mars . The large mass of the Sun makes Earth move around it , just as the mass of Earth makes the moon move around it. Earth also turns around in space, so that different parts face the Sun at different times. Earth goes around the Sun once (one " year ") for every 365​ 1 ⁄ 4 times it turns around (one " day "). Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has a large amount of liquid water . [30] About 74% of the surface of Earth is covered by liquid or frozen water. Because of this, people sometimes call it "blue planet". [31] Because of its water, Earth is home to millions of species of plants and animals . [32] [33] The things that live on Earth have changed its surface greatly. For example, early cyanobacteria changed the air and gave it oxygen . The living part of Earth's surface is called the " biosphere ". [34]

Earth is the planet we live on. It is the third planet from the Sun . It is the only planet known to have life on it. The Earth formed around 4.5 billion years ago . [28] [29] It is one of four rocky planets on the inside of the Solar System . The other three are Mercury , Venus and Mars . The large mass of the Sun makes Earth move around it , just as the mass of Earth makes the moon move around it. Earth also turns around in space, so that different parts face the Sun at different times. Earth goes around the Sun once (one " year ") for every 365​ 1 ⁄ 4 times it turns around (one " day "). Earth is the only planet in our solar system that has a large amount of liquid water . [30] About 74% of the surface of Earth is covered by liquid or frozen water. Because of this, people sometimes call it "blue planet". [31] Because of its water, Earth is home to millions of species of plants and animals . [32] [33] The things that live on Earth have changed its surface greatly. For example, early cyanobacteria changed the air and gave it oxygen . The living part of Earth's surface is called the " biosphere ". [34]

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