gaseous fuels

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Gaseous fuels

Natural gas Compressed natural gas Liquefied petroleum gas

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NATURAL GAS

Natural gas is always found above the oil wells. It is also called MARSH GAS. It consist of methane and other saturated hydro carbons .

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Industry Electric Utility 18 % Utility of Natural Gas Residential 22% Commercial 14% Transportation 30/01

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Composition of natural gas

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Its calorific value varies from 12,000 – 14000 kcal/m3

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If natural gas contains lower hydrocarbons like methane and ethane, it is called LEAN or DRY GAS. If the natural gas contain higher hydrocarbons like propane, butane along with methane it is called rich or wet gas

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USES:

Domestic and industrial fuel Raw material for manufacture of carbon black and hydrogen Generation of electricity by using it in fuel cells

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Compressed natural gas

When a natural gas is compressed it is called compressed natural gas. The primary component is methane

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CONSTITUIENTS PERCENTAGE% Methane 88.5 Ethane 5.5 Propane 3.7 Butane 1.8 Pentane 0.5

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Properties:

1.Cng is cheapest , cleanest 2.Cng produces less carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon 3.less expensive 4.Ignition temperature is 550 ° c 5.Cng require more air

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USES: To run an automobile

Advantages of Cng over lpg 1.Produces less pollutants 2.Cheaper and cleaner 3.Thermal efficiency is more 4.Do not evolve sulphur and nitrogen 5.Mixes very easily with air 6.less noise

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LPG

It is obtained by byproduct during fractional distillation of crude petroleum or by cracking of heavy oil

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Its calorific value is about 25000 kcal/m3

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COMPOSITION

CONSTITUENTS PERCENTAGE % n-butane 38.5 Iso butane 37 Propane 24.5

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Uses

1.Domestic and industrial fuel 2.Motor fuel

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Advantages of lpg over other gaseous fuels

It contains hydrocarbon so it burn easily Higher calorific value Less health hazard Little care Free from carbon dioxide

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Disadvantages

Octane value is very low Only under high pressure Only under high compression